Archive for the ‘Imam Hasan Al-Banna (MB)’ Category

Écrit par Point de Bascule on 10 Février 2011. Posted in Articles par Point de Bascule

Version française ICI

The Muslim Association of Canada (MAC) declares on its website that it aims at applying Islam “as understood in its contemporary context by the late Imam, Hassan AlBanna”. In order to clarify the dangerous implications of this profession of faith, Point de Bascule reproduces the 50-point Manifesto written in 1936 by the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hassan al-Banna. His proposals of reform are very specific and touch all fields of human activity: political, judicial, administrative, social, educational and economic.

When the Brotherhood republished its founder’s Manifesto in 2007, it indicated that in 1947, al-Banna had sent copies of his proposals to king Farouk of Egypt, to his prime minister and to various kings, princes and leaders of the Muslim world. In 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood concluded its presentation by saying “Let us pray Allah that (Hassan al-Banna’s ideas) be fulfilled!”

This document of the Muslim Brotherhood promotes an application of sharia that leads to a one-party State, the prohibition of dancing, the censorship of books and movies, the implementation of specific curricula for boys and girls and even a dress code for all citizens enforced by a religious police.

How did Tariq Ramadan, the founder of Présence Musulmane (Muslim Presence), react towards this reactionary program whose existence he referred to in a speech dedicated to the life of his grandfather? (video 2:25 – in French)

As for his allies at the Muslim Association of Canada, Ramadan endorses his mentor without any reservation:

“I have studied Hassan Al-Banna’s ideas with great care and there is nothing in this heritage that I reject. His relation to God, his spirituality, his personality, as well as his critical reflections on law, politics, society and pluralism, testify for me to his qualities of heart and mind… His commitment also is a continuing reason for my respect and admiration.”

Alain Gresh and Tariq Ramadan, L’Islam en questions, Sindbab, 2002, pp. 33-34
Text quoted by Caroline Fourest, Brother Tariq: The Doublespeak of Tariq Ramadan, New York, Encounter Books, 2008 pp. 4-5

The engagement of Al-Banna was that of a man who dedicated his entire life to controlling the life of his fellow citizens in the smallest details.

After al-Banna’s death, the New York Times (February 13, 1949, p. 1) described his organization as a “political movement with mystic and fascist overtones” and its supporters as “fanatics”.

How did al-Banna’s supporters manage to fool so many people in the last sixty years in order to be invited by so many world leaders, government authorities and Western universities to implement their agenda?

By alerting to the Muslim Brotherhood’s objectives, Point de Bascule hopes to reinforce growing public resistance to the Brotherhood’s extended agenda, and the direct threat that this agenda represents for security and civil liberties.

There are two available English translations of the Manifesto: one that is available on the Muslim Brotherhood website [Ikhwanweb.com] and on other Islamist websites and another one offered by Charles Wendell in his translation of Hassan al-Banna’s book Five Tracts [Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978, p. 126]. We have chosen to reproduce the second one.

Besides a choice of words that varies from one translation to the other, which is understandable, there are other differences that are more substantial. In Wendell’s translation of Proposal 2 [Social sector], the women’s issue is described as “one of the most important social problems” while the Brotherhood’s version characterizes it as “the most important” one.

The very first point of the Manifesto [Political sector] advocates a one-party State. Wendell’s translation adds that the Brotherhood aims at the “channeling of the political forces of the nation into a common front and a single phalanx”. This reference to the “phalanx” is nowhere to be found in the Brotherhood’s version.

Since the Manifesto was written in the thirties while fascism was booming, it is revealing that Islamists have used fascist terminology in order to describe their own objectives. The term “phalanx” was frequently used at the time by fascists, notably by Spain’s fascists led by Franco to designate their own organization. It would be very unlikely that the translator Wendell had decided to add this reference to the phalanx on his own without having found it in the original text in Arabic first. On the other hand, it is easily conceivable that modern day Islamists may have preferred to abandon this fascist reference.

Until now, we have not been able to access the original Arabic version of the Manifesto in order to compare it with both translations.

In the second group of proposals dealing with the social and the educational sectors, the Muslim Brotherhood’s translation reads as follow: “Proposal 26: A consideration into the means of gradually forming a national uniform”. This proposal follows many others that are dealing with the education system promoted by al-Banna. At first glance, we could conclude that this proposal is limited to a dress code for students. However, Wendell’s translation of the same proposal gives us hints that the Muslim Brotherhood envisions a dress code not only for students but for everybody. “Proposal 26: Consideration of ways to arrive gradually at a uniform mode of dress for the nation”.

Proposal 27 (as it can be found on the Brotherhood’s website) confirms that al-Banna was eager to search people’s wardrobes. It asks for “An end to the foreign spirit in our homes with regard to language, manners, dress, governesses, nurses, etc; All this should be corrected especially in upper class homes”.

Political, judicial and administrative sectors

1- An end to party rivalry, and a channelling of the political forces of the nation into a common front and a single phalanx.

2- A reform of the law, so that it will conform to Islamic legislation in every branch.

3- A strengthening of the armed forces, and an increase in the number of youth groups; the inspiration of the latter with zeal on the bases of Islamic jihad.

4- A strengthening of the bonds between all Islamic countries, especially the Arab countries, to pave the way for practical and serious consideration of the matter of the departed Caliphate.

5- The diffusion of the Islamic spirit throughout all departments of the government, so that all its employees will feel responsible for adhering to Islamic teachings.

6- The surveillance of the personal conduct of all its employees, and an end to the dichotomy between the private and professional spheres.

7- Setting the hours of work in summer and winter ahead, so that it will be easy to fulfill religious duties, and so that keeping late hours will come to an end.

8- An end to bribery and favoritism, with consideration to be given only to capability and legitimate reasons [for advancement].

9- Weighing all acts of the government acts in the scales of Islamic wisdom and doctrines; the organization of all celebrations, receptions, official conferences, prisons and hospitals so as not to be incompatible with Islamic teaching; the arranging of work-schedules so that they will not conflict with hours of prayer.

10- The employment of graduates of Al-Azhar in military and administrative positions, and their training.

Social and educational sectors

1- Conditioning the people to respect public morality, and the issuance of directives fortified by the aegis of the law on this subject; the imposition of severe penalties for moral offences.

2- Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teachings, so that this problem – one of the most important social problems – will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency or excess.

3- An end to prostitution, both clandestine and overt: the recognition of fornication, whatever the circumstances, as a detestable crime whose perpetrator must be flogged.

4- An end to gambling in all its forms – games, lotteries, racing, and gambling-clubs.

5- A campaign against drinking, as there is one against drugs: its prohibition, and the salvation of the nation from its effects.

6- A campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as regards female instructors, pupils, physicians, and students, and all those in similar categories.

7- A review of the curricula offered to girls and the necessity of making them distinct from the boys’ curricula in many of the stages of education.

8- Segregation of male and female students; private meetings between men and women, unless between the permitted degrees [of relationship] to be counted as a crime for which both will be censored.

9- The encouragement of marriage and procreation, by all possible means; promulgation of legislation to protect and give moral support to the family, and to solve the problems of marriage.

10- The closure of morally undesirable ballrooms and dance halls, and the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes.

11- The surveillance of theatres and cinemas, and a rigorous selection of plays and films.

12- The expurgation of songs, and a rigorous selection and censorship of them.

13- The careful selection of lectures, songs, and subjects to be broadcast to the nation; the use of radio broadcasting for the education of the nation in a virtuous and moral way.

14- The confiscation of provocative stories and books that implant the seeds of skepticism in an insidious manner, and newspapers which strive to disseminate immorality and capitalize indecently on lustful desires.

15- The supervision of summer vacation areas so as to do away with the wholesale confusion and licence that nullify the basic aims of vacationing.

16- The regulation of business hours for cafés; surveillance of the activities of their regular clients; instructing these as to what is in their best interest; withdrawal of permission from cafés to keep such long hours.

17- The utilization of these cafés for teaching illiterates reading and writing; toward this end, the assistance of rising generation of elementary school teachers and students.

18- A campaign against harmful customs, whether economic, moral, or anything else; turning the masses away from these and orienting them in the direction of ways beneficial to them, or educating them in a way  consonant with their best interests. These involve such customs as those to do with weddings, funerals, births, the zar (a ceremonial of exorcism), civil and religious holidays, etc. Let the government set a good example in this respect.

19- Due consideration for the claims of the moral censorship, and punishment of all who are proved to have infringed any Islamic doctrine or attacked it, such as breaking the fast of Ramadan, wilful neglect of prayers, insulting the faith, or any such act.

20- The annexation of the elementary village schools to the mosques, and a thoroughgoing reform of both, as regards employees, cleanliness, and overall custodial care, so that the young may be trained in prayer and the older students in learning.

21- The designation of religious instruction as a basic subject in all schools, in each according to its type, as well as in the universities.

22- Active instigation to memorize the Qur’an in all the free elementary schools; making this memorization mandatory for obtaining diplomas in the areas of religion and (Arabic) language; the stipulation that a portion of it be memorized in every school.

23- The promulgation of a firm educational policy which will advance and raise the level of education, and will supply it, in all its varieties, with common goals and purposes; which will bring the different cultures represented in the nation closer together, and will make the first stage of its process one dedicated to inculcating a virtuous, patriotic spirit and an unwavering moral code.

24- The cultivation of the Arabic language at every stage of instruction; the use of Arabic alone, as opposed to any foreign language, in the primary stages.

25- The cultivation of Islamic history, and of the national history and national culture, and the history of Islamic civilization.

26- Consideration of ways to arrive gradually at a uniform mode of dress for the nation.

27- An end to the foreign spirit in our homes with regard to language, manners, dress, governesses, nurses, etc; all these to be Egyptianized, especially in upper class homes.

28- To give journalism a proper orientation, and to encourage authors and writers to undertake Islamic, Eastern subjects.

29- Attention to be given to matters of public health by disseminating health information through all media; increasing the numbers of hospitals, physicians, and mobile clinics; facilitating the means of obtaining medical treatment.

30- Attention to be given to village problems, as regards their organization, their cleanliness, the purification of their water supply, and the means to provide them with culture, recreation, and training.

Economic sector

1- The organization of zakat (charity) in terms of income and expenditure, according to the teachings of the magnanimous Sacred Law; invoking its assistance in carrying out necessary benevolent projects, such as homes for the aged, the poor, and orphans, and strengthening the armed forces.

2- The prohibition of usury, and the organization of banks with this end in view. Let the government provide a good example in this domain by relinquishing all interest due on its own particular undertakings, for instance in the loan-granting banks, industrial loans, etc.

3- The encouragement of economic projects and an increase in their number; giving work to unemployed citizens in them; the transfer of such of these as are in the hands of foreigners to the purely national sector.

4- The protection of the masses from the oppression of monopolistic companies, keeping these within strict limits, and obtaining every possible benefit for the masses.

5- An improvement in the lot of junior civil servants by raising their salaries, by granting them steady increases and compensations, and by lowering the salaries of senior civil servants.

6- A reduction in the number of government posts, retaining only the indispensable ones; an equitable and scrupulous distribution of the work among civil servants.

7- The encouragement of agricultural and industrial counselling; attention to be paid to raising the production level of the peasant and industrial worker.

8- A concern for the technical and social problems of the worker; raising his standard of living in numerous respects.

9- The exploitation of natural resources, such as uncultivated land, neglected mines, etc.

10- Priority over luxury items to be given to necessary projects in terms of organization and execution.

Hassan’s Political Thought

Posted: February 21, 2012 in Political Thought
HASAN AL-BANNA AND HIS POLITICAL THOUGHT OF ISLAMIC BROTHERHOOD

HASAN AL-BANNA AND HIS POLITICAL THOUGHT OF ISLAMIC BROTHERHOOD
Perhaps the most sophisticated approach to the ideology of Pan-Islam, in the new situation of Nationalism-bound Egypt of the 920s and 1930s, was developed by Hassan al-Banna, The founder, in 1929 and general guide of The Muslim Brethren (Jami’ah Ikhwan Muslimin).
Tuesday, May 13,2008 17:17
by zhyntativ Zhyntativ.Blogspot.com

Perhaps the most sophisticated approach to the ideology of Pan-Islam, in the new situation of Nationalism-bound Egypt of the 920s and 1930s, was developed by Hassan al-Banna, The founder, in 1929 and general guide of The Muslim Brethren (Jami’ah Ikhwan Muslimin). Al-Banna was chiefly responsible for formulating the policies of this association. Although these were largely concerned with domestic affairs of Egypt, and subsequently of the other countries, in which branches were established, the idea of universal muslim state was constantly implied due to the association’s focus on Islam. While strongly disapproving of local brands of Nationalism, particularly if they were Western-inspired and secularly-minded, Banna developed his vision of Pan-Islamic Nationalism, insisting that Islam and Nationalism were complementary, especially when the latter operated within the parameter of the Islamic truth, since, for the Muslim Brethren, Islam was of course both religion and state.

Here we need to analyze what was the basic concept from which Hassan al-Banna initiated to establish such Islamic organization. Then we would also explore his thought of the causes of descend of Islamic society particularly in Egypt. However, his effort and works deserved great consideration of Islamic society in the revolution to the revival of Islamic state (Caliphate).

HASAN AL-BANNA’S EARLY LIFE

Like many of the Islamic leaders who followed in his footsteps, Al-Banna enjoyed the benefits of a modern education, but had been raised in a traditional Islamic environment.[1] Banna was born in 1906 in Mahmudiyya, Egypt (north-west of Cairo). His father, Shaykh Ahmad al-Banna, was a respected local imam (prayer leader) and mosque teacher, educated at Al-Azhar University, who wrote and collaborated on books on Muslim traditions, and also had a shop where he repaired watches and sold gramophones. Though Sheykh Ahmad al-Banna and his wife owned some property, they were not wealthy. When Hassan al-Banna was twelve years old, he became involved in a Sufi order, and became a fully initiated member in 1922. When he was thirteen, Banna participated in demonstrations during the revolution of 1919 against British rule. In 1923 he entered Dar al “Ulum, a teacher training school in Cairo.

Since then, life in the capital offered him a greater range of activities than the village and the opportunity to meet prominent Islamic scholars, but he was deeply disturbed by effects of Westernisation he saw there, particularly the rise of secularism and the breakdown of traditional morals. He was equally disappointed with what he saw as the failure of the Islamic scholars of al-Azhar University to voice their opposition to the rise of atheism and to the influence of Christian missionaries.[2] In his last year at Dar al-“Ulum, he had dedicated himself to becoming “a counsellor and a teacher” of adults and children, in order to teach them “the objectives of religion and the sources of their well-being and happiness in life”. He graduated in 1927 and was given a position as an Arabic language teacher in a state primary school in Isma”iliyya, a provincial town located in the Suez Canal Zone.

In Isma”iliyya, in addition to his day classes, he carried out his intention of giving night classes to his pupils” parents. He also preached in the mosque, and even in coffee-houses, which were then a novelty and were generally viewed as morally suspect. At first, some of his views on relatively minor points of Islamic practice led to strong disagreements with the local religious élite, and he adopted the policy of avoiding religious controversies. Between 1948 and 1949, shortly after the society sent volunteers to fight in the war in Palestine, the conflict between the monarchy and the society reached its climax. Concerned with the increasing assertiveness and popularity of the brotherhood, as well as with rumors that it was plotting a coup, Prime Minister Nuqrashi Pasha disbanded it in December 1948. The organization”s assets were impounded and scores of its members sent to jail. Less than three weeks later, the prime minister was assassinated by a member of the brotherhood. This in turn prompted the murder of Al-Banna, presumably by a government agent, in February 1949, when Al-Banna was still only 43 and at the height of his career.

HIS CONCERN ON THE DECLINE OF ISLAM

The four years that Al-Banna spent in Cairo exposed him to the political ferment of the Egyptian capital in the early 1920s, and enhanced his awareness of the extent to which secular and Western ways had penetrated the very fabric of society. It was then that Al-Banna became particularly preoccupied with what he saw as the young generation”s drift away from Islam. He believed that the battle for the hearts and minds of the youth would prove critical to the survival of a religion besieged by a Western onslaught. While studying in Cairo, he immersed himself in the writings of the founders of Islamic reformism (the Salafiyya movement), including the Egyptian Muhammad “Abduh (1849-1905), under whom his father had studied while at Al-Azhar. But it was “Abduh”s disciple, the Syrian Rashid Rida (1865-1935), who most influenced Al-Banna.

Al-Banna was a dedicated reader of Al-Manar, the magazine that Rida published in Cairo from 1898 until his death in 1935. He shared Rida”s central concern with the decline of Islamic civilization relative to the West. He too believed that this trend could be reversed only by returning to an unadulterated form of Islam, free from all the accretions that had diluted the strength of its original message. Like Rida at the end of his life — but unlike “Abduh and other Islamic modernists — Al-Banna felt that the main danger to Islam”s survival in the modern age stemmed less from the conservatism of Al-Azhar and the ulama (which he nevertheless criticized) than from the ascendancy of Western secular ideas.[3]

ISLAMIC BROTHERHOOD

Banna stated: ” Islam does not recognize geographical boundaries, not does if acknowledge racial and blood differences, considering all Muslims as one Umma. The Muslim Brethren consider this unity as holy and believe in this union, striving for the joint action of all Muslims and the strengthening of the brotherhood of Islam, declaring that every inch of land inhabited by Muslims is their fatherland…The Muslim Brethren do not oppose every one’s working for one’s own fatherland. They believe that the caliphate is a symbol of Islamic Union and an indication of the bonds between the nations of Islam. They see the caliphate and its re-establishment as a top priority, subsequently; an association of Muslims people should be set up, which would elect the imam”.[4]

Created in Egypt in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood was an organization destined by its very nature to provoke polarized reaction towards western ideology became the first mass-based, overtly political movement to oppose the ascendancy of secular and Western ideas in the Middle East representing to some a diligent group effort in puritanical self-abnegation.[5] The brotherhood saw in these ideas the root of the decay of Islamic societies in the modern world, and advocated a return to Islam as a solution to the ills that had befallen Muslim societies[6]. Al-Banna tried to stop the flood of the Western cultural invasion. The modern Egyptian had lived and moved for a long time within a composite of Islamic- and Western-inspired laws and he felt it necessary to remold Egyptian society in their own image, under their conviction that Islam alone could provide the pattern of the right living. Al-Banna”s leadership was critical to the spectacular growth of the brotherhood during the 1930s and 1940s. By the early 1950s, branches had been established in Syria, Sudan, and Jordan. Soon, the movement”s influence would be felt in places as far away as the Gulf and non-Arab countries such as Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Driving this expansion was the appeal of the organizational model embodied in the original, Egypt-based section of the brotherhood, and the success of al-Banna”s writings.

From the beginning, Ikhwan’s goals were both social and political, promoting the causes of benevolence, charity and development on the one hand, and nationalist independence and Islamism on the other. Through of Ikhwan history, Islamism meant the reform of the society. This goal has been expanded to include the full establishment of shari’ah.[7] From an early age, al-Banna was alarmed by the deteriorating conditions of the Muslims in Egypt and elsewhere throughout the world. He attributed the backwardness of Egyptian society in particular, and Muslim societies in general, to the spiritual and moral decline of the Muslim individual.[8] While the idea of political Pan-Islam was less central to his thinking than that of religious Pan-Islam, Banna recommend the union of Islamic nations around the precept of Qur’an and he held in high esteem political organization, propaganda and active involvement. The Muslim Brethren was the best organized and politically the most important Muslim organization outside the official Islamic establishment in Egypt. Muslim Brethren aimed at overcoming doctrinal differences and increasing co-operation between Muslims the entire world at all levels by strengthening the bounds among them. Other Muslims groups are active and connected to Muslim Brethren such as Jami’ah Subhan Muslimin, Jamiat Alhidayat Al-Islamiyya, Jama’a Ukhuwa Islamiyya.[9]

Al-Banna, the chief ideologue of the Ikhwan, declared that the mission of his organization was to accomplish two objectives: the independence of the Muslim land from foreign domination, and the establishment of an Islamic sociopolitical system (unitiy of ummah)[10]. He believed that reviving and resurrecting the ummah must inevitably begin with the individual, stressing that those able to rebuild the Muslim community must have three qualities: spiritual strength manifested through the determination of the individual and his integrity and self-sacrifice, knowledge of the principles of Islam, and the ability to relate the Islamic principles to real life and apply them effectively to practical circumstances. There was no room in their thinking for compromise with other manners or customs, Islam had presented to them a unified and perfect system and the introduction of foreign elements on a large scale into Muslim society should be avoided.[11]

In less than twenty years, the Ikhwan organization grew from a small association, in the city of Isma’iliyah, to a major political power with numerous branches scattered throughout Egypt. Al-Banna employed an elaborate structure to organize the Ikhwan. The various Ikhwan branches in each province were headed by an Administrative Board (maktab idari) composed of the members of the Executive Council (majlis idari) of the central branch in a province, as well as representatives of all branches in that province. Administration Boards were in turn connected together through the Ikhwan headquarters (al-markaz al-‘amm), located in Cairo. The headquarters was divided into a number of specialized committees and departments: General Committee, Education Committee, Department of Labor, Department of Scouting, Department of Propaganda, Department of Phalanxes, Department of Families, Department of Social Services, Department of Communication with the Muslim World, and Department of Muslim Sisters.

The leadership of the Ikhwan was divided among three bodies: the Founding Assembly (al-hay”a/i al-ta”sisiyah) composed of one hundred members representing the various provinces and branches, (the Assembly was the policy-making body which set the general policy, of the movement); the executive power was assigned to the Executive Office (al-maktab al-tanfidhi), which was composed of twelve members and headed by the Supreme Guide (al-murshid al‘amm); the members of the Executive Office were selected by a special committee, which was known as the Membership Committee (maktab ‘udwiyah). The committee was also responsible for investigating all charges made against the members of the Founding Assembly, and if need be disciplining them.

To achieve the Ikhwan’s goals, al-Banna called for a gradualistic approach in which the desired reform could be attained through three stages. First is the stage of communication and propagation, aimed at exposing the Egyptian society to the true Islamic principles. Second is the stage of mobilization and organization in which the movement would select and train its active members. Finally comes the stage of executing and implementing the Islamic rules and principles in which a society is completely transformed into an Islamic one[12]. Although al-Banna did not explicitly spell out the characteristics of each of these stages, or when and how each of them begins and ends, he stressed time and again that the Ikhwan had a long way to go before they could achieve Islamic reform, and that they were not interested in any revolutionary tactics. He also warned those among the Ikhwan who were looking for fast results that they would either have to learn to be patient and persevering or leave the movement.

His approach aimed at neutralizing local nationalism by considering all are inhabited by Muslims to be one Islamic fatherland (wathan).[13] If not in one Islamic state, then in an association of Muslim nations (Hayatu Ummam Islamiyya). This attitude was paralleled by Banna’s striving to play down the significance of differences among Islamic groups and schools. He even devised a prayer for the use of his follower, combining the sentiment of Egyptian-Nationalism and Islamic solidarity.

Indeed, during its early years, the Ikhwan movement, rejecting violence, adopted a peaceful approach aimed at the gradual reform of society through two types of measures. First, by propagating the Islamic message, and raising the consciousness of the people about current social and public issues; and by offering better solutions and alternatives. The Ikhwan therefore placed a great deal of importance on publication and issued a number of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals. The second type of measures employed by the Ikhwan for achieving reform included sponsoring social welfare projects, such as hospitals, schools, charities, clubs, and the like. But within one decade the reformist tone of the Ikhwan was gradually replaced by a militant one[14]. This was reflected in the statements of al-Banna and in the establishment of a paramilitary wing as well.

Generally speaking, although the Ikhwan’s approach appeared to be for the most part peaceful and gradualistic, it was potentially violent. While Article IV, section 2 of the Ikhwan’s 1945 basic regulations stated that: “the Brethren will always prefer gradual advancement and development …” several statements by the Ikhwan’s leadership showed that they were inclined to resort to violence in such circumstances as those which transpired under al-Nuqrashi Pasha’s government. Al-Banna, for example, clearly asserted that he would not hesitate to use violence if he were forced to do so, or when the Ikhwan were ready to seize power:”The Brethren will use practical force whenever there is no other way and whenever they are sure the implement of faith and unity is ready.”[15]HYPERLINK “http://lsinsight.org/articles/1998_Before/Reform.htm” l “_edn32#_edn32”

The ambivalent stance of the Ikhwan leadership gave confusing signals to the rank and file, leading some to take it upon themselves to carry out a series of violent attacks against the ruling regime, and perhaps believing that the monarchists’ crackdown on their organization had left them with no other choice but to literally fight back. Despite the Ikhwan’s active involvement in Egyptian politics, al-Banna did not see his organization as a political party, but as a prototype of an Islamic society. Nor did he consider the Ikhwan’s political participation within the context of sharing power with other parties. Rather, he believed that it was imperative that the Ikhwan movement grew until it encompassed the entire Egyptian society. In this sense, al-Banna regarded his political activities as a struggle against those forces which were working to hinder the growth and development of the Islamic movement.

In fact, al-Banna looked with contempt and disdain on all political parties in Egypt, accusing them of corrupting social and political life. He repeatedly condemned political parties, charging them with being interested only in increasing the wealth and power of their members, failing thereby to offer any meaningful platforms or programs geared toward promoting the wellbeing of Egyptian society. In a speech delivered before the Ikhwan Fifth Conference, al-Banna called upon the king to dissolve all political parties, arguing that a representative system could survive without parties.

Al-Banna strongly believed that political parties had become a real menace, hindering the development of Egyptian society. He was thus convinced that by dissolving these parties, Egypt would stand a better chance to grow and advance. What al-Banna, and other Ikhwan leaders, failed to see was that by giving the state the right to prohibit party activities, he would enable it to use the same right against any other groups actively involved in public affairs, including the Ikhwan themselves. Indeed, when Nasser came to power in 1952, he immediately dissolved all political parties, sparing the Ikhwan organization. Nasser’s measure against political parties was hailed by the Ikhwan leadership, who thought that Nasser was going to grant the Ikhwan a greater role in running the country. But in less that two years, the Ikhwan themselves were added to the list, after Nasser consolidated his power and purged the army of all officers who were sympathetic to the Ikhwan, or unreceptive to his views.

The death of al-Banna was tragic for the Ikhwan movement, for he was the central figure in the movement, and a respected Egyptian leader who was able through his charisma and leadership skills to elicit the sympathy and support of many influential people. The Muslim Brotherhood has since the martyrdom of Hassan al-Banna survived all attempts to stifle it. Not only did it grow even stronger in Egypt, but it created branches in all the Arab countries. The Islamic resurgence manifest today in the Arab world today owes its origin directly or indirectly to the Muslim Brotherhood Organization.

Bibliography

Amara, Muhammad. Al-Islam Wa-l-Uruba Wa-l-Almaniyya, Beirut, 1981.
Esposito, John. L. The Oxford Encyclopedia of The Modern Islamic World, Volume 3, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Landan, Jacob. M, The Politics of Pan-Islam, Ideology and Organization, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1999.
Rosenthal, Heyworth. Dunne, Religious and Political Trends, Modern Egypt.

Article/ Journal:

Carl, L. Brown. The Society of Muslim Brothers, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Institute of Technology and the Editors of the Journal of Interdisciplinary, published by MIT Press, the Massachusetts, 1972.
Puryear. J. Vernon. Nationalism and Revolution in Egypt, The Role of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Journal of Modern History, the University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Sites:

http://lsinsight.org/articles/1998_Before/Reform.htm. ( 08/04/2006, 13.26 pm)
http://www.americanmuslim.org/1biography1.html. ( 19/04/2006, 17.26 pm)
http://www.glue.umd.edu/~kareem/rasayil/teaching.htm. ( 19/04/2006, 17.13 pm)
http://www.jannah.org/articles/hassan.html. ( 19/04/2006, 17.02 pm)
http://www.salambazar.com/mt/mt-tb.cgi/1414. ( 19/04/2006, 18.02 pm)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hassan_al_Banna. ( 08/04/2006, 14.32 pm)

[1]. http://www.americanmuslim.org/1biography1.html
[2]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hasan_al_banna
[3]. http://www.americanmuslim.org/1biography1.html. Op.Cit.
[4]. Presented in the fifth general meeting of associations in Cairo, dated October 11, 1938, of his lecture on ” The stand of Muslim Brethren towards union. See ‘Amara. Muhammad, al-Islam wa-l-Urubba wa-l-almaniyya (Beirut.1981), p. 171.
[5]. L. Carl Brown, The Society of Muslim Brother, Journal of Interdiscplinary History, Institute of Technology and the Editor of the Journal of Interdisciplinary, MIT Press, Massachusetts.
[6]. http://www.americanmuslim.org/(biography).html. Op.Cit
[7]. John L Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. Volume 3, Oxford Univesity Press, 1995. p. 183
[8]. http://Isinsight/Articles/1998_Before/Reform.htm
[9]. Jacob M Landan. The Politics of Pan-Islam, Ideology and Organization, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990. p. 223-5.
[10]. http://www.salambazar.com/mt/mt-tb.cgi//html
See also http://www.jannah.org/Articles/Hassan.html.
As it was one of The Ten Principles of Hassan al-Banna: The Unity of the Ummah. The Agreement on Principal Matters, Assume First that You, Not Your Muslim Brother, May be Wrong. And see how you find the truth impartially, The Manners for Disagreement, Avoiding Arguing, Self-Righteousness and Belittling of Others, The Possibility of Mulitiple Correct Answers, The Group Participation in Agreed Upon Matters and to Excuse One Another in What is Disagreed Upon, Thinking of the Danger of the Common Adversary, Opening the Avenues for Work and Productivity, Sympathy for Those Who Do Not See the Light.
[11]. Vernon J Purvear, Nationalism and Revolutions in Egypt, The role of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Journal of the Modern History, the University of Chicago Press.
[12]. http://lsinsight.org/articles/1998_Before/Reform.htm. Op.Cit.
[13]. Rosenthal. Heyworth Dunne, Religious and Political trends in Modern Egypt, 1964. p. 116.
[14]. http://Isinsight/Articles/1998_Before/Reform.htm. Op.Cit.
[15]. Http://Isinsight.org/Articles/1998_Before/Reform/htm. Ibid.

Posted by zhyntativ at 9:15 PM

Peace In Islam is a seminal text on Jihadi studies concerning Jihad and its use in Islam. Al-Banna was the mastermind/creator of the Muslim Brotherhood. Understand Al-Banna and you will understand the Muslim Brotherhood as well as every other Jihadi group.

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Peace In Islam: Hanna Al-Banna

1) Introduction

2) Reformist Feeling in the Islamic World
The Causes
Materialism in the West
The Perfection of Islam
The Course of Modernity
The three systems in Prayer
The Islamic Threat – Myth or Reality?

3) Declaring Human Brotherhood and Bringing Glad Tidings of the Universal Idea
Reaffirming Racial and Ethnic Unity
Reaffirming the Oneness of Religion
Confirming the Oneness of the Message
The Unity of Rites
Reaffirming the Qualities of Mercy, Love, Altruism, and Piety
The Universal Humanity in Islamic Societies
The World of Today

4) Peace, and Why Fighting is Allowed in Islam
Islam is a Religion of Mercy
Islam and War
War is strictly forbidden for any other reason
The Preference of Peace, Wherever Possible and its Encouragement
Mercy in War and the Preservation of the Highest Human Morals
Honouring Pacts and Covenants
Jizyah (Tribute)
The Emphasis on Continuous Preparation and Utmost Bravery if Fighting Became Necessary
Was the Call of Islam Spread by the Sword?
Is Islam Unique in Calling for the Use of the Sword in the Protection of the Truth?
Positive Steps by Islam, and What it Has Laid Down inTerms of Guarantees for the Establishment of Peace
Where do the leaers of this age stand in realisation of these steps?

PDF: Peace In Islam

Imam Hasan Al-Banna is the father of the Muslim Brotherhood. This booklet is very important because it provides insight into the Muslim Brotherhood’s belief concerning Jihad. In addition, I will post Al Banna’s booklet “Toward the Light. The booklet “In the Light” provides the philosophical/theological justification for jihad.

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In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Universe. May Allah bestow peace and blessings upon our Leader Muhammad, Leader of those who strive in Allah’s way and Imam of the pious. May He also bestow peace and blessings upon his family and his companions, and all those who strive for the Sharee’ah until the Day of Judgement.

All Muslims Must Make Jihad

Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded. Allah has ascribed great importance to jihad and has made the reward of the martyrs and the fighters in His way a splendid one. Only those who have acted similarly and who have modelled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward. Furthermore, Allah has specifically honoured the Mujahideen with certain exceptional qualities, both spiritual and practical, to benefit them in this world and the next. Their pure blood is a symbol of victory in this world and the mark of success and felicity in the world to come.

Those who can only find excuses, however, have been warned of extremely dreadful punishments and Allah has described them with the most unfortunate of names. He has reprimanded them for their cowardice and lack of spirit, and castigated them for their weakness and truancy. In this world, they will be surrounded by dishonour and in the next they will be surrounded by the fire from which they shall not escape though they may possess much wealth. The weaknesses of abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by Allah as one of the major sins, and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure.

Islam is concerned with the question of jihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the entire Umma into one body to defend the right cause with all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living, whether religious or civil. The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH) are overflowing with all these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.

We shall not go into exhaustive detail but rather will offer you some Qur’anic verses and Ahaadeeth below as examples since we only wish to show a glimpse of the Islamic message on jihad. Furthermore, we will not delve into the explanation of the Qur’anic verses or Ahaadeeth. You will recognise by the purity of language, the clarity of exposition, the lucidity of ideas and the force of spirituality that explanations and clarifications are not required.

The Qur’an on Jihad

‘Jihad is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike something which is good for you and that you like something which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.’

(Surat-al-Baqarah (2), ayah 216)

‘O you who believe! Be not like those who disbelieve (hypocrites) and who say to their brethren when they travel through the earth or go out to fight: ‘If they had stayed with us, they would not have died or been killed,’ so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. It is Allah that gives life and causes death. And Allah is All-Seer of what you do. And if you are killed or die in the Way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass (of worldly wealth etc.). And whether you die, or are killed, verily, unto Allah you shall be gathered.’

(Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 156-158)

Notice how “forgiveness” and “mercy” are associated with slaying and death in Allah’s way in the first verse, and how the second verse is does not refer to this because it is devoid of the idea of jihad. In this verse, there is an indication of the fact that cowardice is one of the characteristics of unbelievers, but not of believers. And notice how today the unbelievers seem to be brave and the believers seem to be the cowards.

‘Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.’

(Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 169-170). Refer up to verse 175 for further information.

‘Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the cause of Allah., and whosoever fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or is victorious, We shall bestow on him a great reward.’

(Surat-an-Nisaa’ (4), ayah 74)

Refer to the verses (4: 71-78) in the Noble Book to understand how Allah urges the Muslims to remain alert and to acquire experience in warfare, in armies and troops, or as individuals, as circumstances may dictate. Allah also reprimands those who are slack, cowards or opportunists, and He arouses our zeal to protect the weak and prevent oppression. Notice how Allah associates warfare with prayer and fasting, establishing it as one of the pillars of Islam. And how He refutes the false arguments of the waverers, and encourages those who are scared to the utmost degree to plunge into battle and to face death unflinchingly and bravely, showing them that they will welcome death, and that if they die in jihad, they will receive the most magnificent recompense for their lives, and that they will not lose any of their contribution or sacrifice however small.

Surat-al-Anfaal is in its entirety an exhortation to jihad and a command to remain steadfast [while engaged] in it, as well as a clear presentation of many of its rules. It is for this reason that the first Muslims (may Allah’s grace be upon them) adopted it as a war chant which they would chant whenever their apprehensions mounted and the battle grew grim. Suffice it to quote what Allah (SWT) says:

‘Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies.’

(Surat-al-Anfaal (8), ayah 60)

up to His words (SWT):

‘O Prophet! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there are be a hundred steadfast they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (they disbelievers) are people who do not understand’

(Surat-al-Anfaal (8), ayah 65)

Surat-at-Tawbah too is in its entirety an exhortation to combat and a clear presentation of its rules. It is sufficient to quote what Allah (SWT) says concerning warfare against the treacherous polytheists:

‘Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and return calmness in the hearts of the believing people thus relieving their anxiety. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 14-15)

And His words (SWT) concerning fighting with People of the Book:

‘Fight against those who believe not in Allah nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the Religion of Truth (i.e. Islam), from among the People of the Book, until they pay the jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 29)

The proclamations of the general call in the following verses, end with His words (SWT):

‘March forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah! This is better for you, if you but knew.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 41)

Allah then rebukes those who are cowardly for their attitude and their continuous attempts to escape from jihad, in His words (SWT):

‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said, ‘March not forth in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,’ if only they could understand!’ So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: ‘Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 81-83)

Then Allah praises those who engage in jihad by declaring jihad as Prophet Muhammad’s mission and the way of his Companions, as He, the Almighty, says:

‘But the Messenger, and those who believed with him, strove hard and fought with their wealth and their lives (in Allah’s cause). The good things are for these people, and it is they who will be successful. For them Allah has got ready the Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 88-89)

Then follows an oath of allegiance, comprehensive and protective leaving no excuses, in His words (SWT):

‘Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their wealth; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.’

(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 111)

Surat-al-Qital (commonly known as Surat Muhammad) mentions two key factors that form the foundation of the military spirit: obedience and discipline. Allah has summarised these two factors in the following two verses in His Book. Obedience appears in this Surah where He, the Almighty, says:

‘Those who believe say: “Why is a Surah not sent down (for us)?” But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting is mentioned (i.e. ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them (hypocrites, to listen to Allah and obey Him). Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them). And when the matter (preparation for Jihad) is resolved on, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.’

(Surat-Muhammad (47), ayah 20-21)

As for discipline, it appears in Surat-as-Saff, where He, the Almighty, says:

‘Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks), as if they were a solid structure.’

(Surat-as-Saff (61), ayah 4)

Surat-al-Fath is also dedicated in its entirety to one of the military campaigns of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and was a special occasion of jihad, which took place under the shadow of a tree where an oath of allegiance unto steadfastness and death was taken, and this bore the fruit of tranquillity and victory. This is what He (SWT), says:

‘Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their bay’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) under the Tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakeenah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them; and He rewarded them with a close Victory; And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.’

(Surat-al-Fath (48), ayah 18-19)

These, brother, are some examples of the Qur’anic references on jihad. Its virtues are made clear, and those who do jihad are given the good news of the magnificent reward that will be waiting for them. The Book of Allah is filled with examples like these, and anyone who reads the Qur’an and pays attention to its meaning will be astounded at the negligence of the Muslims who have failed to take advantage of this reward.

The Ahaadeeth on Jihad

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘I heard the Prophet (PBUH) say:

‘By the One in whose Hands is my soul, had it not been for the limitation of resources which caused some of the companions to remain behind (much to their displeasure), I would not have prevented any group from striving in Allah’s way. And by the One in whose hand is my Soul, I wish I could be killed in the Way of Allah, then live again so that I may be killed again, then live again so that again I may be killed, then live again so that again I may be killed.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari and Muslim)

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘By the One in whose Hand is my Soul, no one is wounded in Allah’s way, and Allah knows best who is wounded in His way, except that the colour of his wound appears on the day of judgement as the colour of blood and his scent appears as the scent of musk.’

On the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘My paternal uncle Anas bin al Nadir was absent from the battle of Badr, and he said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I was absent from the first battle in which you fought the polytheists but if Allah provides me with a second opportunity to participate in a battle with the polytheists, then Allah will witness my actions!’ And when the Day of Uhud arrived and the Muslims retreated, he said: ‘O Allah, I ask you to forgive my brothers for their actions and I excuse myself from the actions of the polytheists!’ Then he rushed forward and met Sa’d bin Mu’aadh and said: ‘O Sa’d bin Mu’aadh, by Allah I smell its scent from below Uhud!’. Sa’d said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I could not do what he did.’ Anas said: ‘We found him with some eighty wounds either from swords, spears or arrows. We found him murdered and mutilated by the polytheists. No one recognised him except his sister, and even she recognised him by his fingers.’ Anas said: ‘We used to think, or suppose, that this verse came down concerning him and people like him: ‘Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah..’ up to the end of the verse (Surat al-Ahzaab (33), ayah 23).’. (Transmitted by Al Bukhari)

On the authority of Umm Haritha bint Suraaqah; she went to the Prophet (PBUH), and said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, can you tell me about Haritha (a stray arrow had struck him before the day of Badrý)? For if he is in Paradise, I will bear his loss patiently. But if he is not there, I shall weep for him’. He said:

‘O mother of Haritha, there are many gardens in Paradise and your son is in Firdaws (the highest level)…’ (reported by Al Bukhari)

Brother, see how Paradise made these companions forget their cares and misfortunes, and enabled them to persevere even through adversities.

On the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Abi Awfa, may Allah be pleased with him,: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘Let it be known that Paradise lies in the shadows of the swords.’ (reported by the Al Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Zayd bin Khalid al Juhani, may Allah be pleased with him: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who provides for a mujahid in the Way of Allah the Almighty, it is as if he himself has made jihad; and he who has supported the family of a mujahid with an act of goodness, it is as if he himself has made jihad.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Al-Tirmidhi) (that is to say he obtains the reward for it)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who out of faith in Allah and a firm belief in His promise prepares a horse while waiting for jihad then its feeding and drinking and its dung are all in his favour on the day of Resurrection.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari)

This is, of course, true for all types of wealth (like the horse) given in the way of Allah:

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, it was said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, what is equal in reward to jihad in Allah’s Way.’ He said: ‘You cannot do it.’ But they brought up the same thing before him two or three times more, and he said: ‘You cannot do it.’ Then he said: ‘The equal of the mujahid in Allah’s way is he who fasts and stands in worship throughout the night reciting Allah’s verses without becoming tired until the mujahid in Allah’s way returns.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nisaa’i , Ibn Majah, and At Tirmidhi)

On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al Khudari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘Shall I tell you who is the best of men and who is the worst? Among the best of men is he who is active in Allah’s way on the back of his horse or camel, or on foot, until death comes to him. And among the worst of men is he who reads the Book of Allah Almighty, and remains unenlightened (he does not check himself, nor does he admonish and reprove himself).’ (Transmitted by An-Nisaa’i)

On the authority of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say:

‘There are two eyes which the Fire shall not touch: the eye which wept for fear of Allah, and the eye which passed the night on guard in the way of Allah Almighty.’ (From At Tirmidhi)

On the authority of Abu ‘Umayra, May Allah be pleased with him who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘It is dearer to me that I die in the Way of Allah than that if the entire wealth of the world were to become mine.’ (Transmitted by An Nisaa’i)

On the authority of Rashid ibn Sa’d, May Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of one of the companions, that a man said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, how is it that the believers will be put to the test in their graves, but the martyr is free?’ The Messenger said: ‘The glittering of swords over his head is a sufficient test for him!’ (Transmitted by An Nisaa’i)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, May Allah be pleased with him: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘The martyr feels nothing more from the pain of slaughter than any one of you feels from the sting of a gnat.’ (Transmitted by At Tirmidhi, An Nisaa’i and Al Darmi. At Tirmidhi designates this as Hasan Gharib)

On the authority of Ibn Mas’ud, May Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘Our Lord (SWT) is pleased with a man campaigning in Allah ‘s way, who, when his companions are driven back, and knowing that the odds are against him, nevertheless returns to the battlefield until he is killed. Then Allah says to the angels: “See how My servant returned to the battle field out of his desire for the reward that I provide and out of his fear from my punishments until he was killed. I call on you to witness that I have forgiven him.’

On the authority of ‘Abd al Khayr bin Thabit, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said: “A woman came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) named Umm Khalid, wearing a veil, in order to ask him about a son of hers who had been slain in the way of Allah Almighty….The Prophet of Allah (PBUH) said to her:

‘Your son has the reward of two martyrs.’ She asked: ‘Why?” He said: ‘Because he was killed by People of the Book.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Sahl bin Hunayf (May Allah be pleased with him): “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who asks Allah Almighty for martyrdom with sincerity, will be brought by Allah to the mansions of the martyrs, though he may die on his bed.’ (transmitted by Muslim, An Nisaa’i, Ibn Majah, and At Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Khuraym ibn Fatik, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who spends a sum in the way of Allah Almighty will have it accredited to his account seven hundred fold.’ (Transmitted by At-Tirmidhi, who classed it as hasan and also by An Nisaa’i).

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “One of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) passed by a ravine in which there was a small fount of fresh water. He was greatly pleased by this, and said to himself: ‘What if I were to withdraw from mankind and live in this ravine?’ He mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), who said:

‘Don’t do it! When one of you takes his place in Allah’s way, it is more excellent than if he prayed in his house for seventy years. Do you not wish for Allah to forgive you and bring you into Paradise? Campaign in Allah’s way: he who fights in Allah’s way mounted on a camel must necessarily enter Paradise.’ (Transmitted by At Tirmidhi.)

On the authority of Al-Miqdam ibn Ma’ad ibn Yakrib, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘The martyr possesses six distinctions with respect to Allah: he is forgiven, amongst the first to be forgiven; he is shown his place in Paradise; he is not punished in the Grave; he is secure from the supreme terror of the day of judgement; the crown of dignity is placed on his head, a single ruby of which is more precious than the entire world and all it contains; he is wedded to seventy-two of the women of heaven; and he may intercede for seventy of his relatives.’ (Transmitted by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah Almighty be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who meets Allah with no trace of jihad on him will meet Allah with a flaw in him.’ (Transmitted by Al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

On the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘He who seeks martyrdom sincerely will be granted it, though it may never touch him.’ (Transmitted by Muslim)

On the authority of Uthman ibn Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of the Prophet (PBUH), who said:

‘He who keeps guard for one night in the way of Allah (SWT) will be credited with a thousand nights of fasting and standing in prayer.’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)

On the authority of Abul-Dardaa’, may Allah be pleased with him, “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘A campaign by sea is the equivalent of ten campaigns by land: he who is tossed about at sea is like one who wallows in his blood in the way of Allah (SWT).’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)

This tradition honours the sea campaign, and the ummah must proceed from this to protect its coastline and strengthen its fleet. This applies by analogy to the air as well, and Allah will increase the reward of those who campaign by air in His way many times over.

On the authority of Jabir ibn Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “When Abd Allah bin ‘Amr bin Haram was slain on the Day of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘O Jabir, shall I tell you what Allah (SWT) said to your father? I said: ‘Yes indeed!’ He said: ‘Allah speaks to no-one save from behind a veil, but He spoke to your father face-to-face, saying: “O My servant, ask of Me what thou wilt, and it shall be granted.” He said: “O Lord, grant me life, that I may be slain for Thee for a second time!” He said: “But I have already decreed that they shall not return unto it.” He said: “O Lord, let them know who are [left] behind me.” So Allah (SWT) sent down these verses “Think not of those who are killed in the way of Allah as dead…” (Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 169) And so on up to the end of the verse. (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)

On the authority of Anas, on the authority of his father (may Allah be pleased with them), on the authority of the Prophet (PBUH), who said:

‘It is more pleasing to me to accompany a fighter in Allah’s way and to help him on his journey, departing or returning, than this world and what it contains.’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘Allah’s guests are three: the mujahid, the haji, and the one who intends to perform umra.’ (Transmitted by Muslim)

On the authority of Abul-Dardaa’, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘The martyr will intercede on behalf of seventy of his family.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘When you deal in hidden Riba, and are fully occupied in your own life and give up jihad; Then Allah shall cover you with such disgrace, as would not be removed, until you would return to your religion again.’ (Transmitted by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, and attested as to its authenticity by Al-Hakim)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:

“The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and his Companions set out in a hurry so that they reached Badr ahead of the polytheists. The polytheists arrived, and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: ‘Rise to the Paradise, whose width embraces the heavens and the earth!” Umayr bin al Humam said: ‘Hurrah!’ The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: ‘What impels you to say “Hurrah! hurrah!” He said: ‘Nothing, O Messenger of Allah, except the hope that I may be one of its people.’ He said: ‘You are indeed one of its people.'”

He (Abu Hurayrah) said:

“And he [Umayr] took out some dates from his quiver and began eating them. Then he said: ‘If I live long enough to eat all my dates, my life will indeed be a long one!’ So he flung away the remaining dates, and fought until he was slain.” Transmitted by Muslim.

On the authority of Abu Imran, who said:

“We were at the city of Rum, and they sent out a mighty regiment of Byzantinian soldiers against us. A like number of Muslims, and even more, came out against them. ‘Uqbah ibn Amir was at the head of the Egyptians, and Fadaala bin Ubayd was the head of the entire force. One of the Muslims rushed and attacked the Byzantinian regiment until he passed through it. The Muslims shouted and said: ‘Glory be to Allah! He has cast himself into annihilation!’ But Abu Ayyub al Ansari rose and said: ‘Men, you interpret this verse in this manner, but it was sent down concerning only us, the band of the Ansar. When Allah made Islam powerful and its defenders grew numerous, some of us said to others in secrecy, but not to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH): “We lost our wealth at the earlier periods, and then later Allah Almighty made Islam powerful and its defenders became many. What if we were to settle down to regain our lost wealth?” So God Almighty sent down an answer, rebutting what we had said, to His Prophet: ‘and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.’ (Surat al-Baqarah (2), ayah 195). The destruction referred to our settling down with our wealth, while working to increase it, and abandoning jihad. And Abu Ayyub continued in God’s way until he was buried in the land of Rum.” (Transmitted by Tirmidhi)

Notice, brother, that Abu Ayyub said this in his old age, he had passed the evening of life and entered into the night of life yet his spirit remained young while his faith yearned for the return of the might and the grandeur of Islam.

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), that he said:

‘He who dies without having gone on campaign, and without having exhorted himself to do so, dies in a state of hypocrisy.’ (Transmitted by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and there are many reportings of the same meaning)

There are many precious Ahaadeeth on this subject which contain guidance or commandments regarding jihad. They are so numerous though that even a large book would not suffice to cover them. But otherwise “Al-‘Ibrata Feema Warada ‘Anillahi wa Rasulihi fi al Ghazwu wal Jihad wal Hijra” (The Wisdom in What Was Transmitted in the Qur’an and Sunnah about Fighting, Jihad and Hijrah), by Hasan Sidiq Khan, who is specialised in this research, and “Mashari’ alAshwaq ila Masari’ al-‘Ashaq wa Matheer al-Gharam ila Dar as-Salam” and what has come in the books of Ahaadeeth, in the sections on jihad, you will see a lot of good.

The Scholars on Jihad

I have just presented to you some verses from the Qur’an and the Noble Ahadith concerning the importance of jihad. Now I would like to present to you some of the opinions from jurisprudence of the Islamic Schools of Thought including some latter day authorities regarding the rules of jihad and the necessity for preparedness. From this we will come to realise how far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the consensus of its scholars on the question of jihad.

The author of the “Majma’ al-Anhar fi Sharh Multaqal-Abhar”, in describing the rules of jihad according to the Hanafi School, said: “Jihad linguistically means to exert one’s utmost effort in word and action; in the Sharee’ah it is the fighting of the unbelievers, and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the power of the enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of worship and smashing their idols. This means that jihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those who fight you and the dhimmies (if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the apostates (who are the worst of unbelievers, for they disbelieved after they have affirmed their belief).

It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb every year at least once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfil the obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. If this fard kifayah (communal obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group, then the responsibility lies with the closest adjacent group, and then the closest after that etc., and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled except by all the people, it then becomes a fard ‘ayn (individual obligation), like prayer on everyone of the people. This obligation is by virtue of what He, the Almighty, said:

‘Then fight the polytheists…!’

(Surat at-Tawbah (9), ayah 5)

and by what the Prophet (PBUH) said:

‘Jihad is in effect until the Day of Judgement’

If the whole body [of believers] abandons it, they are in a state of sin’ (up to where the author of the book says: ‘If the enemy conquers any territory of Islam, or any regions of it, it becomes a fard ‘ayn, and the woman and the slave shall go forth without the permission of husband or master. In the same way, the child shall go forth without the permission of his parents, and the debtor without the permission of his creditor.’

And in the Kitab al Bahr:

‘Should a Muslim woman be captured in the East, it is incumbent on the people of the West to rescue her unless she is taken to the stronghold cities of the enemies, and it becomes impossible to free her.’

The author of the “Bulghat al-Salik li Aqrab al-Masalik fi Madhhab al-Imam Malik” said:

‘Jihad in Allah’s way for the purpose of exalting Allah Almighty’s Word every year is a fard kifayah. If some fulfil it, the remainder are absolved of it. It becomes specifically designated (i.e., it becomes a fard ‘ayn like prayer and fasting), when the Imam announces it and the enemy attacks the population of a specific region, whereupon it becomes obligatory on them and if this in sufficient then it becomes obligatory on those in their vicinity. In this case it becomes obligatory on the females and the slaves even though they may not have the permission of their husbands or their masters. It is also obligatory on the debtor even though the lender may not agree to it. It also becomes fard ‘ayn on that individual who vows to engage in jihad. Parents have the right to forbid their child from taking part in it only under conditions of fard kifayah. And if a Muslim is held as a prisoner of war by enemies and he does not have enough money to pay to free himself, then it is obligatory on the others to secure his release, even if this requires all of the Muslims’ wealth.’

And in Al-Minhaj of Imam Nawawi of the Shafi’i school:

‘Jihad during the time of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was a fard kifayah, though it is also alleged that it was a fard ‘ayn. Since then, there are two conditions relative to the unbelievers:

If they remain in their own territories, then jihad is not an obligation on all Muslims. As long as a sufficient number of Muslims undertake it, the remainder are released from this duty.

If they invade one of our territories, its population are obliged to repel them with all their force. If fighting is possible then fighting becomes an obligation. Every slave, poor person, son and debtor must prepare for war, even though they may not have permission..”

And in Al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama of the Hanbali school, who said:

‘Jihad is a fard kifayah. If a group of people engage in it, the remainder are released. It becomes a fard ‘ayn under three conditions:

If two armies meet and two lines of soldiers confront one another, those present are forbidden to leave the battlefield, and it becomes a fard ‘ayn on each one to remain at his station.

If the unbelievers attack a territory, it is a fard ‘ayn on its population to fight and repel them.

If the Imam calls a group of people to arms, then they must join his military forces. And he should at least announce Jihad once every year.’

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said:

‘I know of nothing after the divine commandments more excellent than jihad, and campaigning by sea is more excellent than campaigning on land.’

Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him! said:

‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asleep. Then he awoke laughing, and Umm Haram said: “What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “People of my ummah embarked on a military campaign in Allah’s way, riding on the surface of this sea as kings on their thrones,”

and at the end of the Tradition, Umm Haram asked the Prophet (PBUH) to beseech Allah on her behalf that she might be one of them. So he prayed for her, and she lived long enough to ride upon the sea in the Muslim fleet which conquered the island of Cyprus. She died and was buried there, may Allah be pleased with her.

And it says in Al-Muhalla of Ibn Hazm:

‘Jihad is obligatory on the Muslims, but if the borders of the Muslims can be protected, the enemy can be repelled and fought within his own territory then the remainder of the people are released from it. And if not, then the obligation remains. God Almighty said:

‘Go ye forth, (whether equipped) light or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the Cause of Allah!’

(Surat at-Tawbah (9), ayah 41)

It is not permissible to participate in jihad without the permission of the parent. But if Muslim land is invaded, then it is obligatory on those who can help even if their parents do not grant them permission. However, it is not lawful for him to abandon his parents if his parents would suffer in his absence.

And Al-Shawkani said in Al-Sayl al-Jarrar:

‘The arguments regarding the jihad being a religious obligation, both in the Qur’an and in the Sunnah, are too numerous to be set down here. Nevertheless, it is a fard kifayah as long as some people are fulfilling this fard kifayah then the rest are absolved from the duty. Otherwise, it is an fard ‘ayn incumbent on every adult by law until the duty is fulfilled. Similarly, it is a fard ‘ayn also on those people who are ordered to jihad by the Imam.’

The scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is irrespective of whether these scholars were Mujtahideen or Muqalideen and it is irrespective of whether these scholars were salaf (early) or khalaf (late). They all agreed unanimously that jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da’wah of Islam, and that jihad is a fard ‘ayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. Today, my brother, the Muslims as you know are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by disbelievers. Our lands have been besieged, and our hurruma’at (personal possessions, respect, honour, dignity and privacy) violated. Our enemies are overlooking our affairs, and the rites of our din are under their jurisdiction. Yet still the Muslims fail to fulfil the responsibility of Da’wah that is on their shoulders. Hence in this situation it becomes the duty of each and every Muslim to make jihad. He should prepare himself mentally and physically such that when comes the decision of Allah, he will be ready.

I should not finish this discussion without mentioning to you that the Muslims, throughout every period of their history (before the present period of oppression in which their dignity has been lost) have never abandoned jihad nor did they ever become negligent in its performance, not even their religious authorities, mystics, craftsmen, etc. They were all always ready and prepared. For example, Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, a very learned and pious man, was a volunteer in jihad for most of his life, and ‘Abdulwahid bin Zayd, a sufi and a devout man, was the same. And in his time, Shaqiq al Balkhi, the shaykh of the sufis encouraged his pupils towards jihad.

And Al Badr al Ayni, the commentator on Al Bukhari (scholar and muhaddith), would take part in jihad one year, study for one year and go on pilgrimage one year, while the judge Asad ibn al Furat of the Maliki School was an admiral in his day and Imam Shafi’i would shoot ten arrows and not miss once.

Such was the example set by the early generations of Muslims, may Allah’s grace be upon them! My brother, how do we compare with them?

Why Do the Muslims Fight?

Islam allows jihad and permits war until the following Qur’anic verse is fulfilled:

‘We will we show them Our signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth.’

(Surat al-Fussilat (41), ayah 53)

People have for some time now ridiculed this but today these same people acknowledge that preparation for war is the surest way to peace! Allah did not ordain jihad for the Muslims so that it may be used as a tool of oppression or tyranny or so that it may be used by some to further their personal gains. Rather jihad is used to safeguard the mission of spreading Islam. This would guarantee peace and the means of implementing the Supreme Message. This is a responsibility which the Muslims bear, this Message guiding mankind to truth and justice. For Islam, even as it ordains jihad, it extols peace: the Blessed and Almighty said:

‘But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah.’

(Surat al-Anfal (8), ayah 61)

The Muslims in war had only one concern and this was to make the name of Allah Supreme, there was no room at all for any other objective. The wish for glory and reputation were forbidden to the Muslims. The love of wealth, the misappropriation of the benefits of war and striving to conquer through unjust methods are all made forbidden to the Muslim. Only one intention was possible and that was the offering of sacrifice and the taking of pains for the guidance of mankind.

On the authority of Al-Harith bin Muslim, on the authority of his father, who said:

‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) sent us on a military expedition. When we reached the area to be raided, I urged on my horse and got ahead of my companions. The people of that area met me with cries of lamentation, and I said to them: “If you say: ‘There is no god but Allah’ you are safe.” So they said it. My companions reproached me and said: “You have prevented us from taking any spoils!” When we came back to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), they told him what I had done. He called me over and found what I had done praiseworthy. Then he said to me: “Allah Almighty has indeed decreed for you so much and so much reward for every human being.” And he said: “I myself shall write something for you in the way of a bequest after my death.” He did so, sealed it, and handed it over to me.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud.)

And on the authority of Shaddad bin al Hadi (may Allah be pleased with him):

‘A man of the [nomad] Arabs came and believed in the Prophet (PBUH). Then he said: “I shall emigrate with you.” And the Prophet (PBUH) put him into the charge of some of his Companions. In a campaign the Prophet (PBUH) took some booty and this was divided up, and he gave him his share. And he [i.e., the Arab] said: “What is this?” He said: “I have apportioned it to you.” He said: “It was not for this that I followed you; rather I followed you that I might be pierced here (and he motioned with his hand to his neck) with an arrow, and that I might die and enter Paradise.” He said: “If you are truthful in what you have just said, then Allah will fulfil your desire.” So they remained there for a space; then they rose to do battle with the enemy. He was carried over to the Prophet, having been struck with an arrow exactly where he had pointed. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “Is it he?” They said: “Yes.” He said: “He was truthful in what he said, so Allah answered him.” Then he was shrouded in the garment of the Prophet (PBUH), and he [i.e., the Prophet] walked before him and prayed over him. This is part of what he said in his prayer: “O Allah, this is your servant who went forth as an Emigrant in your way and was slain a martyr. And I am a witness unto it.” (Transmitted by An-Nisaa’i)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him:

‘A man said: “O Apostle of Allah, what of a man who wants to engage in jihad in Allah’s way, but desires the goods of this world?” He said: “There is no reward for him.” And he [i.e., the man] repeated this question to him three times, but he said: “There is no reward for him.”‘ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:

‘The Apostle of Allah (PBUH) was asked about a man who fights courageously, one who fights zealously, and one who fights hypocritically. Which of these was in the way of Allah? He said: “He who fights so that Allah’s Word is the most exalted is in Allah’s way.”‘ (Transmitted in Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, An-Nisaa’i and Ibn Majah)

The companions’ (may Allah’s grace be with them) behaviour in the battles and in the territories they conquered indicates the extent to which they abstained from indulging in their personal desires and cravings, and the extent of their dedication to their fundamental and original goal: the guidance of mankind to the truth until Allah’s Word is the most exalted. The charge of some people who accuse the companions of being covetous of power and authority, desirous of grabbing countries and ascendancy or that a passion for earning a living was driving their activities is ludicrous.

Mercy in the Islamic Jihad

The Islamic jihad is the noblest of endeavours and its method of realisation is the most sublime and exalted. For Allah has forbidden aggression. He, the Almighty, has said:

‘But transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.’

(Surat al-Baqarah (2), ayah 190)

and He commanded that justice be observed, even towards the enemy and the adversary. He, the Almighty, has said:

‘And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety.’

(Surat al-Maa’idah (5), ayah 8)

Allah instructs the Muslims to act with the utmost mercy. For when they fight, they do not instigate hostilities, nor do they steal nor plunder property, nor do they violate someone’s honour, nor do they indulge in wanton destruction. In their warfare they are the best of fighters, just as in peace they are the most excellent of peacemakers.

On the authority of Burayda, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:

‘Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) appointed a commander over an army or a band of raiders, he told him to remain conscious of Allah Almighty in his inward self and to remain concerned for the care of the Muslims who were with him. Then he [i.e., the Prophet] said: “Strive in the name of Allah in Allah’s way! Fight those who disbelieve in Allah: campaign, but do not indulge in excesses, do not act treacherously, do not mutilate, and do not slay children.”‘ (Transmitted by Muslim.)

On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:

‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: “When one of you fights, let him avoid [striking] the face.”‘ (Transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim)

On the authority of Ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

‘The most self-restrained from amongst mankind even at the time of killing are the people of iman.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)

On the authority of Abdullah bin Yazid al Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:

‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) forbade plundering and mutilation.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhaari)

It is forbidden to slay women, children, and old people, to kill the wounded, or to disturb monks, hermits, and the peaceful who offer no resistance. Contrast this mercy with the murderous warfare of the ‘civilised’ people and their terrible atrocities! Compare their international law alongside this all-embracing, divinely ordained justice!

O Allah , bless the Muslims with a correct understanding of the deen, and save the world from these injustices with the enlightenment of Islam!

Associated Matters Concerning Jihad

Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one’s ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: “We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad.” They said: “What is the greater jihad?” He said: “The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one’s ego.”

This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah’s way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition: The prominent muhaddith Al Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in the Tasdid al-Qaws:

‘It is well known and often repeated, and was a saying of Ibrahim ibn ‘Abla.’

Al Hafiz Al Iraqi said in the Takhrij Ahadith al-Ahya’:

‘Al Bayhaqi transmitted it with a weak chain of narrators on the authority of Jabir, and Al Khatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of Jabir.’

Nevertheless, even if it were a sound tradition, it would never warrant abandoning jihad or preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the disbelievers. Let it be known that this narration simply emphasises the importance of struggling against one’s ego so that Allah will be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.

Other associated matters concerning jihad include commanding the good and forbidding the evil. It is said in the Hadeeth: “One of the greatest forms of jihad is to utter a word of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler.” But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra (the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen.

Epilogue

My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.

My brother, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. And remember brother that nothing can happen without the Will of Allah: ponder well what Allah, the Blessed, the Almighty, has said:

‘Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves (as to how to save themselves, ignoring the others and the Prophet) and thought wrongly of Allah – the thought of ignorance. They said, “Have we any part in the affair?” Say you (O Muhammad): “Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.” They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death: but that Allah might test what is in your hearts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in (your) hearts.”‘

(Surat al-Imran (3), ayah 154)

You should yearn for an honourable death and you will gain perfect happiness. May Allah grant myself and yours the honour of martyrdom in His way!

IMAM SHAHEED HASAN AL-BANN